Megamos crypto

megamos crypto

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Megamos crypto

Megamos crypto как происходит процесс майнинга megamos crypto


Our third attack exploits the fact that some car manufacturers set weak cryptographic keys in their vehicles. We propose a time-memory trade-off which recovers such a weak key after a few minutes of computation on a standard laptop. Papers and proceedings are freely available to everyone once the event begins.

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It only takes a minute to sign up. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. It has recently emerged that a paper that was scheduled to appear at Usenix Security , titled "Dismantling Megamos Crypto: Wirelessly Lockpicking a Vehicle Immobiliser" , has been censored according to a newspaper article in the "Guardian". A court in the UK issued a temporary injunction barring the scientists from publishing their paper.

Based upon the newspaper article, it sounds like the paper describes how to break Megamos, a crypto algorithm that is used in several luxury cars — "including Porsche, Audi, Bentley and Lamborghini". That same newspaper article indicates that software for Megamos has been available on the Internet since As cybergibbons notes in his answer, the court decision itself is quite interesting reading.

In particular, while the details of the "Megamos algorithm" itself are obviously not given in the court decision, the manner in which it is used is described in a surprisingly clear manner in paragraphs 4 and The number is unique to that car. It is called the "secret key". Both the car computer and the transponder also know a secret algorithm. That is a complex mathematical formula. Given two numbers it will produce a third number.

The algorithm is the same for all cars which use the Megamos Crypto chip. Carrying out that calculation is what the Megamos Crypto chip does. It is sent to the transponder. Now both computers perform the complex mathematical operation using two numbers they both should know, the random number and the secret key. They each produce a third number.

The number is split into two parts called F and G. Both computers now know F and G. The car sends its F to the transponder. The transponder can check that the car has correctly calculated F. That proves to the transponder that the car knows both the secret key and the Megamos Crypto algorithm. The transponder can now be satisfied that the car is genuinely the car it is supposed to be. If the transponder is happy, the transponder sends G to the car.

The car checks that G is correct. If it is correct then the car is happy that the transponder also knows the secret key and the Megamos Crypto algorithm. Thus the car can be satisfied that the transponder is genuine. So both devices have confirmed the identity of the other without actually revealing the secret key or the secret algorithm.

The car can safely start. The verification of identity in this process depends on the shared secret knowledge. For the process to be secure, both pieces of information need to remain secret - the key and the algorithm. Translated back into standard crypto terminology, it appears that the "Megamos algorithm" is an evidently failed attempt to implement a pseudorandom function family PRF.

Specifically, the authentication protocol described in the paragraphs above can be rephrased as follows:. To perform an authentication exchange:. Indeed, the same holds regardless of the details of the protocol: by definition, any instance of a secure pseudorandom function family is indistinguishable from a truly random function, as long as one does not know the key used to choose the instance.

Indeed, there are many published and freely usable PRF algorithms that have withstood extensive public scrutiny and cryptanalysis, and are in common use worldwide. All that said, I can easily enough understand why they may have chosen to do so: the Megamos Crypto chip is designed to be embedded into a car key, with all the attendant limitations on memory capacity and power consumption. Implementing standard crypto primitives like AES on such small, low power devices is often a challenge, and of the few crypto algorithms specifically designed for such devices, most are new and still poorly analyzed, not to mention that even the published designs often end up making questionable tradeoffs in speed vs.

The designers of Megamos Crypto may have been hoping that, by designing their own algorithm and keeping it secret, any security weaknesses it may have might not be so easily exploited. By the way, the court decision even quotes some interesting parts of the redacted paper, including the following, which sheds some light on the nature of the weaknesses discovered in the Megamos algorithm:.

It seems unfeasible to prevent an adversary from gathering two authentication traces. It would require a complete re-design of the cipher to fix these weaknesses. To that purpose, lightweight ciphers, like grain, and so on, have been proposed in the literature and could be considered as suitable replacements for the Megamos Crypto.

On the positive side, our first attack is more computationally intensive than the attacks in section 6 and 7, which makes it important to take the aforementioned mitigating measures in order to prevent the more inexpensive attacks. From the phrasing, and from the suggestion of Grain as an alternative, it appears that the "Megamos algorithm" may in fact be some kind of a stream cipher.

This does make sense, insofar as, with the input somehow combined with the key, a stream cipher may be regarded as PRF with arbitrary-length output. Stream ciphers, despite their limitations as crypto building blocks, also still remain very popular as crypto primitives for low-end systems. The attack itself appears to be some kind of a related-key attack based on comparing the output of the cipher for two different random nonces which are made known during the authentication process and presumably involving some kind of "informed brute force" enumeration of the internal cipher state in order to recover the secret fixed part of the cipher key.

Tango Programmer is readily available, but it appears that it needs to be bought alongside a physical programmer. Another company, Bicotech , produce a similar tool called RwProg. The software is downloadable from their website. The executable is packed, but I am sure it would be perfectly possible to reverse engineer the algorithm from the binary. There are other tidbits of information in the court proceedings, I suggest reading them as there may be something of greater interest.

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USENIX Security '13 - Dismantling Megamos Crypto: Wirelessly Lockpicking a Vehicle Immobilizer


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